Monday, 29 October 2012

Fall of Dhaka

Fall of Dhaka

A brief introduction:

Islamic Republic of Pakistan came into being on 14 Aug. 1947 as the biggest Islamic state of the world. Pakistan comprised of two parts at that time i.e. East Pakistan (presently Bangladesh) and West Pakistan (present Pakistan). But unfortunately Pakistan lost this honor of being the biggest Islamic state of the world on 16 Dec 1971 with the loss of East Pakistan.


These were some of the important facts about new born Pakistan in 1947 Pakistan had a population of 740000 and it was divided in two big parts geographically.
East Pakistan
West Pakistan
4, 20, 63,000 (about 56 %)
3, 37, 79,000 (about 44%)
55,000 square miles
3,10,000 square miles
Important crops
Rice, Jute, Tea Pineapple, Coconut
Cotton, Tobacco, Wheat, Corn
Major languages
Urdu, Sindhi, Pashto, Punjabi etc.
hot and humid, 88 inches annual rains
hot and moderate, 12 inches annual rains

Reasons for fall of Dhaka:

There are so many reasons, so many factors involved in this sad and tragic incident, here we will throw light on some following reasons;

Forgotten Islamic ideology:

Pakistan was the only ideological country that was formed on an ideology. This ideology, the ideology of Islam played a vital role in Pakistan movement and it was the only force that helped Muslims of sub continent to achieve their homeland in such a short period of time. But unfortunately after the formation of Pakistan this bond of brotherhood continuously went downward and no serious steps were taken to increase bond of love between the people of two parts of the country.

Geographical and cultural differences:

While evaluating the reasons of fall of Dhaka a historian can not ignore this bitter reality that both parts of country had a distance of about 1000 miles between them and a cunning enemy India was laying between the two parts. Apart from that people living in both part s of Pakistanwere very much different from each other in their life style .poor people of East Pakistanwere different in their way of living form the people of west Pakistan. Theirdressing, their food everything was different and moreover there was no connection between the two parts of the country, people from WestPakistanusually ridiculed and made fun of the living standards of east Pakistanis. This was one of the main reasons of the hatred between two parts of country.

Role of Bureaucracy:

From the very first day after the formation of Pakistan bureaucracy gained unreasonable power in the country. Bureaucracy was most powerful in English reign and it kept its previous practice of doing whatever it wanted to do in new Pakistan as well. They practiced their powers with so much cleverness that some of them reached very important posts for example Malik Ghulam Mohammad and Sikandar Mirza who never contested any election became the head of the state. They practice their powers in such a way that even Quaid -E-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnahcouldn’t have used them.
Unfortunately majority of CSP class was from Punjab and Bengal had a very limited membership in this class, due to which they were fascinated by this propagandathat people from Punjab are treating us as a their colony

Discrimination in military and civil bureaucracy in joint Pakistan:


East Pakistan
West Pakistan
Lieutenant General
Major General
Navy officers
Air force officers

Civil bureaucracy:

East Pakistan
West Pakistan
Joint Secretary
Deputy Secretary
Under Secretary

 Influence of Hindus in East Pakistan:

In East Pakistan Hindus were not only dominant in economy but also in government jobs. Lawyers and think tanks were also from Hindus, they were affiliated with Indian national congress and migrated to Pakistan and always created disturbance according to the wishes of our enemy India. They had never accepted the formation of Pakistan from heart. This 4 % population of Hindus in Bengal was working day and night to cut Bengal from Pakistan ad ultimately they succeeded.

Role of Hindu teachers in East Pakistan:

Unfortunately Bengali Muslims were lagging behind in education and majority of school and college teachers in Bengal was from Hindus who tried their best to urge the youth of Bengal to revolt against the ideology of Pakistan and guided them to fight for their “freedom” from Pakistan.

Lack of national leadership:

One of the major reasons for Pakistan’s deplorable condition in these 65 years is that Pakistan lacked in a sincere and true leadership after Quid-e-AzamMuhammad ali Jinnah. This deficiency of national leadership also played its part in fall of Dhaka. The Muslim league leaders had failed badly. They were unaware of the problems of public and there co ordination with each other was zero. This in difference of leaders of Muslim league towards Bengali people left really bad effects on the sensitive public of Bengal.

Economic conditions of East Pakistan:

East Pakistan was always less developed and it always lagged behind as far as economic condition was concerned. Before partition people from Bengal used to think that Hindus industrialist was the main reason of their economic backwardness but unfortunately after patrician no serious step was could be taken to eradicate smuggling from east Bengal. There was a huge difference between per capital income and the general economic standards of east and West Pakistan and there was no effort made to bridge this gape as well. As a result east Bengal remained economically backward and selfish elements converted in inferiority complex of east Bengalis into hatred against the west Pakistanis.

Provincial Prejudice:

Ideally speaking Pakistan should have formed its constitution with in one or two years after its coming into being, So that all the emotion of national unity which were present at that time could have been maintained. But unfortunately we could not even decide the basic principles and rules for our country in 1st nine years which created provincial prejudice and so many other miss understandings between two parts of the country. This provincial prejudice played a vital rule in Pakistan’s disintegration.

President Ayub’ martial law:

Ayub khan’s so called firm government closed down all those safety valves which helped the politicians to be aware of the critical situation of EastPakistanpermanent state of emergency in the country always supported beauracracy which always suppressed the public. This gave birth to the gutter politics and created hatred in hearts of the public of EastPakistan.

Language differences:

The first ever attack on the national unity of Pakistan was the language conflict which permanently divided Pakistan in two parts this problem arouse in 1948 for the first time when Quaid-E-Azam wasalivebut at that time this issue did not take that much importance, but after Quaid E Azam this issue again arose and this time there was no national leader who could handle this problem. The conflict was simple. Bengali was the language of 56 % of Pakistani population and they logically and justifiably wanted Bangla to be the national language but official always insisted on having Urdu and only Urdu as national language which was spoken only by 12% of Pakistani population. Ultimately both Bengali and Urdu were taken as national languages but the damage now had been done.

Formation of one unit:

In beginning Pakistan had four provinces, Punjab, Sindh, NWFP and Bengal, but population in these provinces was not balanced. More than half of the total population lived in one province and always demanded for their share in National Assembly and Senate on the basis of population and this was one of the biggest obstacles in the formation of a constitution as well. Law makers resolved this issue by combing all the provinces of West Pakistan in one big unit and declaring it half of the country on 14 Oct. 1955. Now Pakistan had only two provinces east and WestPakistan. But Bengalis never accepted this decision as they were deprived of their due right of representation in assemblies by this formation.

Six points of Sheikh Mujeeb Urehman:

Sheikh Mujeeb Ur Rehman was the only recognized leader of East Pakistan at the time of disintegration of Pakistan he was one of the main characters involved in fall of Dhaka. He presented his controversial six points in 1966; these six points played a vital role in separation of Bengal,
First enunciated on February 12, 1966, the six points are as below:
1. The Constitution should provide for a Federation of Pakistan in the true sense on the basis of the Lahore Resolution and for a parliamentary form of government based on the supremacy of a directly elected legislature on the basis of universal adult franchise.
2. The Federal Government shall deal with only two subjects; Defense and Foreign Affairs. All residuary subjects will be vested in the federating states.
3. There should be either two separate, freely convertible currencies for the two Wings, or one currency with two separate reserve banks to prevent inter-Wing flight of capital.
4. The power of taxation and revenue collection shall be vested in the federating units. The Federal Government will receive a share to meet its financial obligations.
5. Economic disparities between the two Wings shall disappear through a series of economic, fiscal, and legal reforms.
6. A militia or paramilitary force must be created in East Pakistan, which at present has no defense of it own.
Basically he suggested for a confederation in the cover of provincial autonomy and started propagating against the federation of Pakistan and ultimately broke it.

Agartala conspiracy:

In Dec 1967 a conspiracy of kidnapping and killing of GeneralAyubwas reveled after some days another conspiracy was caught. This was the Agartala conspiracy. According to government reports India’s first secretaryOjha and some leaders ofAwami League were planning to disintegrate Bengal from Pakistan and for that purpose they were holding talks on bringing the ammunition in this accusation sheikh Mujeeb was arrested but unfortunately its effects came really bad as Mujeeb became hero of the Bengalis and later on he was released.

Bhutto, Mujeeb and Yahya triangle:

Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, sheikh Mujeeb Ur Rehman, and General Yahya, this triangle undoubtedly is the biggest factor in fall of Dhaka. Pakistan could have been united today if these three had thought of national interest and not of their own personal interests. Yahya wanted to remain president and for that he was ready to do anything, Bhutto wanted his share in government by giving the concept of second largest party and Mujeeb also showed rigidity in his attitude, and thisresulted in the fall of Dhaka

Military operation of Takka Khan:

When Yahya khan showed hesitation in calling the assembly for its first meeting after elections, unrest and frustration arose in East Pakistan but instead of talking it out Yahya ordered for a military operation, general Takka khan conducted the notorious operation and thousands of innocent people were killed, this really added to the hatred of Bengali people

High jacking of Ganga plane:

India knew that East Pakistan is at the distance of 1000 miles from West Pakistan so they started planning against Pakistan. Indiaplayed a clever trick and got on of its planes high jacked by its own agentsand made it land on Pakistani soil. Later on they accused Pakistan for itshigh jacking and banned all Pakistani planes to fly over Indian air way, by doing this they practically cut off West Pakistan from East Pakistan

Flood in East Pakistan:

As stated earlier Bengal was a damp area where more than 88 inches average rains were recorded annually, it was common for Bengal to face huge floods and thunderstorms. A huge flood hit Bengal in 1970 as well. It could have been a blessing in disguise if Pakistani rulers had helped out the poor Bengalis at that time the hatred could have been minimized a lot but they showed their conventional indifference and it proved fatal ultimately. 5 lac people died and it ruined Pakistan’s unity as well

Elections of 1970:

In 1970 Pakistan observed the only fair elections of its history. Awami league won in East Pakistan and Pakistan People’s Party in West Pakistan. But no party could win even a single seat from other part of country. This fair election was indigestible for Pakistani public and transfer of poor could not be made. Ultimately the rope was broken in this cat fight and Pakistan was divided

Continuous Indian intervention:

India has been the biggest enemy of Pakistan from day 1. it has never accepted Pakistan and always tried to destabilize Pakistan, it played the most important role in Pakistan ‘loss of Bengal, it kept its continuous intervention in East Pakistan, sometimes by its agents and Mukti Bahini and sometimes by its paid members in the national assembly ofPakistan. India always used this weakness of ours to exploit the Kashmir issue and ultimately defeated Pakistan in 1971

Indian attack on East Pakistan:

After weakening Pakistan in every field when India felt that now Pakistan is weak enough to be defeated, it attacked Pakistan directly on 24th Nov. 1971. Pakistan army resisted this attack for a month or so but it was very difficult for army to fight without air support and its public. UltimatelyPakistan armyin spite of recording great gestures of bravery surrendered on 16 Dec 1971 and was defeated at the hands of Indian army

Role of foreign super powers:

If we look at the political scenario of that time we feel that USA and USSR in order to cover china wanted Pakistan to be cut short. For this purpose they found East Pakistan the best possible way to be cut away from Pakistan and American ambassador Joseph Farland seemedreally busy at that time with Pakistan issue, America also refused to give Pakistan the ammunition or any kind of support in spite of being itsally.

Pakistan’s emotional attitude in Security Council session:

Even after all these factors there was a possibility that the war could have been resolved according to the resolutions of UNO and we could have avoided the embarrassment of surrendering before India but Pakistan’s emotional attitude in UNO proved to be the last nail in the coffin and we lost more than half of our country on 17 Dec 1971

After war effects of war of 1971:

Ø  We practically lost 55% of our country
Ø  Over 90 thousand Pakistani military and civil personals were imprisoned.
Ø  New stories of tyranny over Bengalis were written.
Ø  Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto came to power in remaining Pakistan.
Ø  A commission under supervision of Chief Justice of Pakistan justice Hamood Urehman was formed to investigate the factors involved in fall of Dhaka, but its report could never have been published.
Ø  There was a huge wave of disappointment and tension among Pakistanis as no one could believe that we had lost the war as well as half of our country.
Ø  On 2nd July 1972 Pakistan lost another war, this time on table buy signing Simla Pact.

Simla pact:

These were the points included in Simla pact;
(i) That the principles and purposes off the Charter of the United Nations shall govern the relations between the countries;
(ii) That the two countries are resolved to settle their differences by peaceful means through bilateral negotiations or by any other peaceful means mutually agreed upon between them. Pending the final settlement of any of the problems between the two countries, neither side shall unilaterally alter the situation nor shall both prevent the organization, assistance or encouragement of any acts detrimental to the maintenance of peaceful and harmonious relations.
(iii) That the pre-requisite for reconciliation, good-neighborliness and durable peace between them is a commitment by both countries to peaceful co-existence, respect for each other's territorial integrity and sovereignty and non-interference in each other's internal affairs, on the basis of equality and mutual benefit;
(iv) That the basic issues and causes of conflict which have bedeviled the relations between the two countries of the last twenty-five years shall be resolved by peaceful means;
(v) That they shall always respect each other's national unity, territorial integrity, political independence and sovereign equality;
(vi) That in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, they shall refrain from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of each other;
(II) Both Governments will take all steps within their power to prevent hostile propaganda directed against each other.
Both countries will encourage the dissemination of such information as would promote the development of friendly relations between them;
(III) In order progressively to restore and normalize relations between the two countries step by step, it was agreed that;
(i) Steps shall be taken to resume communications, postal, telegraphic, sea, land including border posts, and air links including over flights;
(ii) Appropriate steps shall be taken to promote travel facilities for the nationals of the other country;
(iii) Trade and co-operation in economic and other agreed fields will be resumed as far as possible;
(iv) Exchange in the fields of science and culture will be promoted.
In this connection delegations from the two countries will meet from time to time to work out the necessary details.
(IV) In order to initiate the process of the establishment of durable peace, both Governments agree that:
(i) Indian and Pakistani forces shall be withdrawn to their side of the international border;
(ii) In Jammu and Kashmir, the line of control resulting from the cease-fire of December 17, 1971 shall be respected by both sides without prejudice to the recognized position of either side. Neither side shall seek to alter it unilaterally, irrespective of mutual differences and legal interpretations. Both sides further undertake to refrain from the threat of the use of force in violation of this line;
(iii) The withdrawals shall commence upon entry into force of this Agreement and shall be completed within a period of thirty days thereof.
(V) This Agreement will be subject to ratification by both countries in accordance with their respective constitutional procedures, and will come into force with effect from the date on which the Instruments of Ratification are exchanged.
(VI) Both Governments agree that their respective Heads will meet again at a mutually convenient time in the future and that, in the meanwhile, the representatives of the two sides will meet to discuss further the modalities and arrangements for the establishment of a durable peace and normalization of relations, including the questions of repatriation of prisoners of war and civilian internees, a final settlement of Jammu and Kashmir and the resumption of diplomatic relations.

Timeline of fall of Dhaka:

Linguistic violence
Elections in East Pakistan
Formation of one unit
14 Oct. 1955
First martial law
7 Oct. 1958
Mujeeb Urehman’s six points
Agartala conspiracy
Dec 1967
End of One Unit
1st April 1970
Legal Framework Order(L.F.O)
29 mar 1970
Flood in East Pakistan
Aug 1970
General Elections
Dec 1970
Takka Khans’s operation
26 mar 1971
High jacking of Ganga Plane
30 Jan 1971
“Dhaka is a butcher house” (Bhutto)
18 Feb. 1971
Indo Pak war
21 Nov 1971
Fall of Dhaka
16 Dec 1971
Shimla conference
2 July 1972

Important characters involved in fall of Dhaka:

General Ayub Khan
Chief Martial Law Administrator, President of Pakistan 1962-69, Chief of Army Staff
General Yahya Khan
Chief Martial Law Administrator, President of Pakistan 1969-71, Chief of Army Staff
Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto
A feudal lord from Sindh, founder of Peoples party ,Prime Minister of Pakistan 1973-77
Sheikh Mujeeb Urehman
Head of Awami League, Bangladesh’s first President and then Prime Minister
General Takka Khan
Military Governor of East Pakistan , conducted the notorious military operation in East Pakistan
General A.K Niazi
Deputy Chief Martial Law Administrator, Chief Commanding Officer of East Pakistan
General Jagjit Singh Aroura
Indian Chief Commanding officer of Eastern zone
Indra Gandhi
Only daughter of JawaharLaaal Nehru, Prime Minister of India 1966-1977 and again in 1980-84


Ø  16 December 1971 is so far the darkest and most hurting day of our history
Ø  Have we learnt any lesson from this tragic incident?
Ø  God Forbid if we are moving towards another fall? Fall of Quetta?
Ø  There is only one point in this critical evaluation that Bengal was not separated from us, we separated it with our own “hard work


  1. The ideology for formation of pk was wrong. None of the leaders followed this ideology e.g. yaya was heavy alcohol driker and evil. butto was evil too, even Jinnah, I have doubt, followed this ideology. He should not separate based on this ideology. Pk is country of evil leaders. Ayub is another example. Mujib was jailed in many occasions for many years. why? no good reasons. You can see from the tables above, how pk deprived Bangalis. Why should not revolution come??

  2. Every time Mujib talked about the inequalities (as shown in above in tabular form), Evil pk govt. put him in jail. Sk. Mujib was sure that although he won in election 1970, power will not be transfer to him. Bustard British made pk with two wings which they knew will never stand specially with pk evil minded people. On the other hand India was great although Hindu fought against evil pk. Evil will never stand in long run, so coward evil force vanished.

  3. Factsheet: When evil pk forces surrendered, Indian Shik force rescured many bangalis nacked women with their head cloths from pk evil forces camp. In contrust, Hindu religion was better than pk Islam ideology. Some articles pk people expect to reunite, the impression evil pk made, this will never happen. Every bangalis will fight with their last blood against it.

    1. well Mr, zahirul haque, it was indeed a huge loss obviously because of the injustice with bengalis in almost all the aspects, be it political, social or economic. And we completely hold ourselves responsible for it. but let me make it very clear to you that we do not want to reunite with Bangladesh. we respect your choice of getting separate. we have accepted Bangladesh as an independent state by all means. so plz do not spread this misunderstanding that we want to make Bangladesh part of Pakistan again.secondly and most importantly, please do not raise your finger on Quaid's ideology as this hurts our national sentiment. i know its your right to express your point of view in your way, but with each right there comes a responsibility, its your responsibility to take others' sentiments in account while saying anything. thankyou..

  4. thank you for your reply , there is a lot of controversy too, this is piece is meant for University and unfortunately could not be against the national interest though i tried to minimize it as much as possible. But i really appreciate your feedback :)

  5. If a president of a country is well known wine drinker, and believe in rape, order to kill innocent people, can it be Islamic republic? On March 25, Evil Yaya khan ordered pk evil army to kill all Bangali intellectual people. Evil pk army not killed but also raped many bangali women. Only on that night alone thousand of University professors were killed. It can be merely Evil Republic of Pakistan.

    1. your views are highly appreciated and I agree to as well knowing the historical backgrounds of our army this is very easy to conclude the overall incident was a tragedy, n for that matter yes we shud hold ourselves accountable and moreover be sorry to what we did and didnt learn anything from it

  6. we must apologize to Bengalis for atrocities allegedly committed by Pakistan Army in 1971 evil army of that time

    1. no doubt instead of an apology now i hope we realize first n stop feeding our demons through army, civil govt , intelligence , judiciary, religious groups and so on

  7. assalam o alaikum
    i would like to say you, author,did not mention about "Mukti Baheni"?
    some Pakistani people are apologizing to bengalies about the fall of Dakka, i must say there is no need to do so. in recent past indian pm said about that. we fully know about indian interference and bengali were with india at that time and we expect that type of things from bengalies.....

  8. It was not mandatory not even written in the constitution that single majority party have to win seats in both part of Pakistan.Awami league is t the winner of 1970 election but power was not transferred.What a irony that second largest party demanded power share of the government formation.Do they believe in democracy?

  9. It was not mandatory not even written in the constitution that single majority party have to win seats in both part of Pakistan.Awami league is t the winner of 1970 election but power was not transferred.What a irony that second largest party demanded power share of the government formation.Do they believe in democracy?